Self-Care Scoring Algorithm

This scoring algorithm can be used to calculate responses to the all of the documents found on this site.



All of the instruments on this website are
scored in the same fashion. All use a standardized score computed separately
for each individual score. Do not compute a total score reflecting the
whole index or inventory. That is, do not add together Self-Care Maintenance,
Self-Care Monitoring (or Symptom Perception), and Self-Care Management scales.


To compute a standardized score, first compute
a raw scale score. Then transform the raw scale score to a standardize score that
ranges from 0 to 100.


Computing Raw Scale Scores

After item recoding, including
handling of missing data (see below), a raw score is computed for each scale.
This score is the simple algebraic sum of responses for all items in that
scale. For example, the raw scale score for the Self-Care Maintenance Scale
is the sum of the responses
to items in section A.


Missing data

You can use imputed values or change
the denominator in the transformation formula (see below) to accommodate missing items. We
recommend that if the respondent answers ≥50% of the items in a multi-item scale (e.g., Self-Care Maintenance), thescore should be calculated. If the respondent answered ≤50% of the items, the score for
that scale should be set to missing.


This simple scoring method is
possible because items in the same scale have roughly equivalent
relationships to the underlying concept being measured and no item is used in
more than one scale. Thus, it is not necessary to weight items. These are the
assumptions used in calculating the commonly used SF-36.


Transformation of Scale Scores

The next step involves transforming
each raw scale score to a 0 – 100 scale using the formula shown below. The Table
below provides the information necessary to apply this
formula to each scale in the Self-Care of Chronic Illness Inventory (SC-CII)
as an example. Use the same principle when computing scores for the other

This transformation converts the
lowest and highest possible scores to 0 and 100, respectively. Scores between
these values represent thepercentage of the total possible
score achieved.





Table. Formulas for Scoring and Transforming Scales


Sum final item values

Lowest and highest possible raw

Possible raw score range

Self-Care Maintenance



8, 40


Self-Care Monitoring



5, 30


Self-Care Management



5, 30



Example: A Self-Care Maintenance raw score
of 21 would be transformed as follows:

[(21 – 8)]

_______          * 100 = 41

[      32    ]


*Note that item 14 theoretically fits into Self-Care Monitoring.
However, in prior studies, item 14 has loaded in Self-Care Management. We
recommend that both options be tried in psychometric testing. The item should
be used in the scale where it fits the best. Another option is to use item 14
as a separate item reflecting the link between self-care monitoring and
management. If you choose to use this approach, we recommend treating responses
to this item as ordinal level data and analyzing the percentage of respondents
who select each response choice.