Self-Care Scoring Algorithm

This scoring algorithm can be used to calculate responses to the all of the documents found on this site.

All of the scales are scored in the same fashion, although we provide SPSS syntax only for the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) below as an example. Do not compute a total score. Instead, calculate separate scores for each scale separately.

In general, to standardize a scale score, 1) determine the maximum possible scale score, 2) subtract the number of items from the possible score, and 3) divide 100 by that result to identify a constant for that scale. To score the scale, sum item responses, subtract the number of items answered, and multiply by the constant.

Maintenance. To calculate the Maintenance scale scores, each scale score is standardized to a 0 to 100 range. If you are using an old version with a negatively worded item, reverse-code that item and then standardize the raw score to a 0-100 scale. Note that more than half of the items in this section A should be answered for the scale to be an adequate measure of self-care maintenance.
Symptom Perception. To calculate the Maintenance scale scores, each scale score is standardized to a 0 to 100 range. At least half of the items in this section B should be answered for the scale to be an adequate measure of heart failure symptom perception.
Management. At least half of the items in section C must be answered for the scale to be an adequate measure of self-care management.
Confidence.
Confidence is not part of self-care per se, but an important process that mediates or moderates the relationship between self-care and outcomes. We recommend that the Self-Care Confidence scale be used whenever one of the self-care scales is administered. Self-care confidence scores (Section D) should be standardized as described above. Note that more than half of the items in this section should be answered for the scale to be an adequate measure of self-care confidence.

SPSS Syntax for Scoring the SCHFI:

Here is some useful SPSS syntax for the SCHFI v7.2 (29 items + 10 Self-Care Confidence items). We are using different names and labels for these items; just search and replace our labels with your own labels (e.g. first question = SCHFI1).
Please make sure that missing values (often written as 9, -9, or 99) are correctly specified in SPSS. Otherwise, you will be likely to have some high (>100) or low (<0) scores. Also, scores for subjects with missing data have to be calculated separately, depending on how many and which items they missed.

1. Self-care Maintenance (10 items)
Possible range of score: 10-50 → Standardized score range: 0-100

2. Symptom Perception (9 or 11 items depends on presence of symptoms)
a. Without symptoms (9 items) → Standardized score range: 0-100
Possible range of score: 9-45

b. With symptoms (11 items) → Standardized score range: 0-100
Possible range of score: 9-55

Note: The last two questions have answer choices with “0” values, so these items do not increase the sum of scores. For example, a patient can select “never” for the items from 1 to 9, then select “I did not recognize the symptom” (0 value) for the item 10 to 11. In this case, the sum of scores is 9 (1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+0+0=9).

3. Self-care Management (8 items)
Possible range of score: 7-40 → Standardized score range: 0-100

Note: The last question has answer choices with “0” values, so these items do not increase the sum of scores. For example, a patient can select “not likely” for the items from 1 to 7, then select “I did not do anything” (0 value) for the item 8. In this case, the sum of score is 9 (1+1+1+1+1+1+1+0=7).

4. Self-care Confidence (or Self-efficacy) (10 items)
Possible range of score: 10-50 → Standardized score range: 0-100